Category Archives for "FAQ"

Pre-Workout Supplements: Do They Really Work?

Pre workout supplements improve your energy, focus, and stamina in the gym. It helps you to fully benefit from your workout time in the gym.

The majority of people who take pre workout supplements do so to boost their energy levels, muscle power or staying power during their workout.

What are pre workout supplements?

Pre workout supplements are food supplements usually made up of ingredients like caffeine, guarana and creatine. Before you purchase any pre-workout supplement, you need to check review on that particular supplement to find out how effective it is and if it has any side effects or not. Never use one unless you have found out that it is healthy pre workout supplements.

What most of these best pre and post workout supplements do is to alter your feeling during your work-out and after.

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Define Nootropics: What Is and What Is Not.

Define Nootropics:

In broad term, nootropics are substances with the potential ability of enhancing the functionality of the brain in various capacities. The main aim of taking nootropics is to improve the functionality of the brain, and as such nootropics are considered “smart drugs” and the term cognitive enhancers is often used interchangeably in defining nootropics.

Although the above definition is very broad, this article would go into specifics about what nootropics are and what they are not.

Nootropics can come in various forms, either as a drug, as a supplement, herbs or in any other form you can possible think of. As long as the potential benefit of what you’re taking is to improve the functionality of the brain, then it falls into the category of what we call nootropics. Coffee is a nootropics substance as well.

Nootropics are known to improve seven (7) major functionalities of the brain; memory, executive function, attention span, motor skills, information processing, perception and language. However, most nootropics in the market are incapable of improving the brain in all these functionality. Most tend to focus on two or three functionality at a time.

With various rave and big pharmaceutical companies pushing smart pills adverts on the web and offline, it’s very easy to get confused on what the real nootropics mean, what they do and most importantly where to get them. This article would answer most of these questions.

Benefits Of Nootropics:

Everybody wants to be smarter, everybody wants an edge ahead of others. As mentioned earlier, when I was defining nootropics; I defined it as “any substance” that is capable of improving the functionality of the brain. I also went further in listing out the seven (7) most important functionalities in which nootropics are known to affect.

This section of the article would pick those functionality one after the other and discuss them in relative to the benefits of nootropics.

#1. Nootropics Improves Memory:

We all want to remember stuffs in details. We want to remember things without struggling. We want to remember names, address, phone number, what we studied the other night, our dreams, name it! A larger percentage of the criteria used by the modern society in judging human intelligence is how memorable such an individual is.

The key to great memory is by increasing the connection between the neurons that stores the memory. Scientifically, this is called plasticity. The more frequent you retrieve the information from your brain, the easier it is to remember it every time you try to recall (tricky huh?). In fact, the science behind it is that, we recall things from the last time we remember them.

A larger percentage of nootropics work on the memory is by improving the connection between the neurons in the brain. This is done through the stimulation of brain cells to secrete more brain chemical known as neurotransmitters.

These neurotransmitters carry messages from one neuron to the other thus improving neuroplasticity.

#2. Nootropics Improves Attention Span:

One of our greatest undoing in this generation is our short attention span. The inability to focus on something for a very long time is the reason why we miss lots of opportunity, and more importantly why we make poor and uninformed decision.

Nootropics are known to greatly increase the attention span of the brain. This explains why physicians would usually prescribe such drugs to people with attention disorder. If you would like to increase your attention span, then popping a pill of nootropics wouldn’t be a bad idea.

This comes handy, especially for those that are into creative work, and students as well. Since the generally attention span for a average individual is twenty (20) minutes.

#3. Nootropics Improves Information Processing:

It’s easy to make perfect decision when you’re able to see the entire details from different perspective. When your visual and spatial processing ability is top notch, then making good decision would be as easy as it could get.

Nootropics are known to improve spatial working memory. Which is the ability to store an information temporarily until a certain task is completed. This ability gives room for various mental manipulation within the shortest time frame.

Other benefits of nootropics includes:

#4. Improved Motorskills

#5. Improved Executive functions of the brain

#6. Improved Learning abilities

#7. Reduced Brain Stress Hormone

Types Of Nootropics:

Nootropics is define as “any” substance that is capable of improving the brain functionality in some certain capacity.

Nootropics can come in form of drugs or supplements. There are natural supplements as well, example of which includes, fish oil, gingko biloba extract, all naturally occurring antioxidant and a wide varieties of others.

Nootropics Side Effect:

There is a misconception I would like to clear out as far as the use of term is concerned. I mentioned earlier that the term nootropics and cognitive enhancers are often used interchangeably. However, there is a clear difference between the two, and this is the appropriate section to clear out this misconception.

All nootropics are known to perform cognitive enhancing function, but not all cognitive enhancers are nootropics. The difference between the two lies in the perceived side effect.

The term nootropics is generally reserved for cognitive enhancers with very minimal or no side effect whatsoever (at least that the initial definition of nootropics). This term has been abused over the years, and as such people now call cognitive enhancers nootropics as long as they can improve certain brain function, without giving consideration to possible side effects.

Nootropics generally have no side effect on the brain. But Cognitive enhancer does. However, there is no clear distinct between nootropics and cognitive enhancers as of today because the market is flooded with various products and no standard body is responsible for regulating them.

What this implies is that, new drugs called “nootropics” might have their own side effects, which is why it is very important to seek physician opinion or at the very least read other users review before committing to long term use of certain cognitive enhancers.

What You Don’t Know About Zinc Supplements.

Here is a comprehensive guide of the zinc supplement.

This post contains information about zinc as an important part of our body system and zinc supplements which provide solutions to deficiencies.

It’s a good thing that they are mostly called supplements and not enhancers. If the manufacturers called them enhancers most people might need a little more convincing. Don’t expect sci-fi movie type of developments in your system, you would be disappointed.

The scope of zinc supplements goes beyond a particular brand or for a particular use. To clarify that, let's see what zinc really is, and how it works as a supplement.

Zinc as a mineral:

Zinc was discovered in 1764 in its pure metallic form. Wit the advent of technological advancement, it is now employed in various segments of our industrial and commercial activities.

Right now, it sounds like some mined metal found in the depths of the earth, but it's not all that. It's actually an important ingredient responsible for the proper functionality of our body system.

Zinc is also referred to as an essential trace element, meaning that we need little amounts for our health. It’s just as abundant as iron in our body system and probably does just as much to improve our bodily functions.

Like other vitamins, it plays a very important series of roles in our body’s health. You do not want to run low on this, trust me.

You’ve probably heard about zinc deficiency before, and if you’ve not, symptoms include stunted growth, low insulin levels, generalized hair loss, rough and dry skin, slowed wound healing. Diarrhea, loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Experts have also linked zinc deficiency with intestinal disorders which interfere with food absorption, kidney failure, and other chronic diseases.

That wasn’t meant to scare us into racing to our doctors to check our zinc levels but I think that paints the general idea of how important this element isto our body.

Now that we have gotten that out of the way, I think you might be curious about one or two medical conditions you’ve been battling with for a while, and probably trying to link them to zinc deficiency. Well, that is not for you to decide.

It's good to go for medical check-ups from time to time. However, if after your visit to the clinic you’ve found out that your zinc levels are low, don’t panic. That’s what zinc supplements are for.

Zinc supplements

Literally, supplements help make up for losses. These losses may be related to vision, fertility, fighting viruses, immune system, dental plague, sexual health, kidney, resistance to harsh weather conditions, among others.

Zinc can become deficient in the body through quite a number of ways, including through sweats, so this doesn't leave anyone out.

However, these losses do not occur in all humans, at least not in the same way. In this post, they will be categorized into children, men, and women health.

Zinc supplements for kids

Kids are very fragile, not just because the term “kids” sounds fragile, but when you consider the anatomy of young humans, you'll know not to make a mess of it. Their bones haven’t fully developed, even other parts of their bodies especially in females are still dominant, and needs enough time and care to blossom.

Zinc is a micronutrient which plays important roles in the immune, reproductive and nervous systems of children, which basically are all of the body parts.

Seeing as the human body can't produce this nutrient, we best consider zinc supplement for kids to avoid the effects of deficiencies on their growth.

Research has shown that an average of 1 out of 58 deaths of children between the ages 1 to 5, is caused by zinc deficiencies. This might not sound like a lot, but personal involvement would change your orientation about that.

Basically, the effects of zinc deficiencies in kids include diarrhea especially in malnourished children, regular headaches, nausea, among others. Zinc supplements for kids have been known to counter these effects and give such kids a healthier chance at life.

Too much consumption for kids is just as dangerous, so make sure that you get a licensedprescription before administering zinc supplements to your kids. Also, before you resolve to zinc supplement for your kids, make your that they are well nourished because healthy feeding has a long way to go in children’s growth.

Zinc Supplements for men

As adults, the male anatomy in relation to zinc levels is quite different. As you might have heard, it mostly affects fertility. Zinc can be referred to as a testosterone supplement for men. And to us men, that’s pretty important to our survival.

According to research, zinc is pretty important to everyone, but men need it more.

Basically, zinc is responsible for the bioactivities that supplement the testosterone synthesis. In layman terms, it improves the erectile function, sperm count and motility, sex drive and solves most of the sex-related issues that men have been faced with.

However, one major misconception is that only sex freaks or those who are still looking to have more kids are the only ones concerned with this.

Here’s a fact! Even if you're planning on being a eunuch,it's still very important that you supplement your zinc levels as it has everything to do with your health.

As explained earlier, the major bad news caused by low zinc levels and inevitable high prolactin is called male hypogonadism, which is a medical term used to explain the condition where the body does not make enough testosterone.

Some of the problems caused by low zinc levels in adult males include;

  • · Low male sex hormones,
  • · Infertility and depleted sex drive
  • · Erectile dysfunction
  • · Inability to grow a beard,
  • · Constant fatigue,
  • Loss of muscle strength, etc

Zinc Supplement for Women

For women, you have to consider your health as well as your fertility and the product of your fertility – your kids. You wouldn’t possibly expect women who are zinc deficient to give birth to healthy babies.

Seeing as zinc deficiency in babies is the most dangerous, and might be the line between their life and death, you might want to look into that to be on the safer side.

On a personal level, the effects of zinc deficiency are just as that in men. However, apart from their hormones, they also need zinc supplements to avoid osteoporosis, especially for those who have gone through menopause.

Before menopause, women have more estrogen (sex hormone) than men. However, this changes after menopause, and then they begin to experience bone loss and osteoporosis. Zinc supplements can help solve this problem.

Apart from these, the effects of zinc deficiencies in women and men are pretty much the same.


  • Decreased rate of age-related chronic disease
  • Quicker wound healing
  • Diarrhea treatment especially in kids
  • Regulation of immune functions
  • Proper growth
  • Fertility in adults
  • Memory enhancement and improved cognitive functionality, etc

Side Effects

As much as zinc supplements sound like the savior of the entire human race from death and diseases, it has its own side effects too.

However, being a natural element that it is, the side effects can’t be due to manufacturer’s error, so there’s only one way to go about it. Overdosing on zinc supplements is the only way to get side effects from it, and surprisingly, the effects of too much zinc intake are almost the same as overdosing on it.

The effects may vary from commonly occurring to rare conditions.

Natural Zinc Supplements:

Apart from zinc supplements, zinc can also be found in foods. Hence, zinc-fortified foods can be referred to as natural zinc supplements. Some of the best natural zinc supplement sources include; sea foods, grain cereals, dairy products, animal meat, fish, nuts, beans, among others.

Since the zinc supplements in these foods cannot be quantified, ill have you know that the average adequate zinc intake per day is about 10 to 15 milligrams.

However, vegetarians may need a lot more than the recommended intake of zinc because it's not really as much in plant foods as it is in meat and other non-vegetarian means.

Best zinc supplements Reviews

When it comes to edible products, the rules are more direct. The things to look out for before purchasing zinc supplements or any other drug for that matter include;

The value you get for the price you are about to pay. Compare this with other products in that category and their cost. This would ensure that you get the best deals.

Reviews and feedback from users. These users have used the drugs. Their comments are more real and experienced than what is written on the bottle or sachet cover. These feedbacks cover its bioavailability, how easy the doses are, the ingredient quality and amount, and even other considerable options.

Publicity is everything. Conduct a more thorough research on the reputation of the company. Customer reviews can help with that too.

Stay safe!

If after ingesting enough zinc supplemented foods regularly, you still have azinc deficiency, you should seriously consider taking one of these reviewed best zinc supplements.

1.Nature’s bounty Chelated Zinc Supplement :

Zinc supplements work for the same purpose, to level up the zinc level in the body. The difference between their outputs, however, lie in the ingredients used. Nature’s bounty Chelated Zinc uses the chelated amino acid form of Zinc gluconate which is a quite popular zinc supplement recipe.

It’s easily absorbed by the body, blends well with the body system and by so doing regulates the zinc level in yourbody, keeping you safe from zinc deficiency related threats.

Nature's bounty Chelated Zinc supplement is produced in the form of chelated Zinc gluconate which is designed to support your healthy immune system.

Per dose, you get about 50milligrammes of zinc. This might sound a little bit high as compared to thelimit set for zinc intake by licensed health care practitioner, but it has been ensured that it would be as efficient as it should without causing more damage to the body system.

It is suitable for vegetarians, which is an added bonus, and comes in bottles containing 50 caplets of zinc supplements.

2. Nature made Zinc:

Nature made Zinc supplement is quite similar to Nature’s bounty chelated zinc supplement in many ways including the use of zinc gluconate as the key ingredient. It also blends well with the body system and begins zinc regulation of the body soon after use.

Its effect has a lot of advantage on the endocrine system as well as the immune system functioning, giving users optimal benefits of their health restoration.

However, the major difference is that it comes in doses of 30milligrammes, which is quite less and safer for consumption. It is also suitable for vegans and vegetarians. Also, it comes in packs of 100 capsules. This is quite impressive because the price ranges are the same, and you can probably use this for twice as long and get the same effect of zinc level restoration.

3. Source Naturals OptiZinc:

The Source Naturals OptiZincbrand are quite generous in their marketing of zinc supplements. It comes in bottles of 240 doses of 30miligrams of zinc. With this brand, you can travel for months without having to worry about getting a refill.

One additional advantage is that the source Naturals OptiZinc doesn’t just function as a zinc supplement. It also provides 300microgrammes of Copper in the form of Copper Sebacate. Also, the major zinc source is provided in the form of zincMonomethionine.

The combination has a reasonable level of bioavailability and support enzymatic functions to help repair cells in the body while it also regulates the zinc level in the body. This surely qualifies to top the best zinc supplements in the market.

4.  Solaray Zinc copper:

These products just keep getting better. The Solaray Zinc copper supplement was brilliantly manufactured to combine Zinc, copper and iodine supplements in the form of Zinc amino acid chelate, copper, and iodine from kelp.

The combo helps regulate zinc levels in the body while it makes up for copper deficiency, which in turn prevents you from excessive zinc consumption and then provides thyroid support from the iodine to increase your metabolic rate.

Solaray Zinc copper supplement serves a dose of 50milligrammes of copper blended with 2 milligrams of copper and 53 micrograms of iodine in packs containing 100 capsules.

It’s suitable for Vegetarians as well as vegans

5. Jarrowsformula zinc balance:

The presence of copper in zinc supplements open doors for more health benefits and more value for your money. Jarrows formula zinc balance really balances the scale while it prevents both zinc and copper deficiencies, ensuring that you have a regulated mineral level.

The zinc and copper contents are in the form of zinc Monomethionineand copper gluconate respectively with 30miligrams of zinc and 1miligram of copper per dose. A hundred capsules of these supplements are in each bottle, giving you a supply lasting about three months.

Calcium Supplements: The Only Guide You Need.

Not sure if you need calcium supplements? Read this guide first!

Just like any other nutritional element, calcium is an important part of our daily nutrition and its role in maintaining a good health cannot be overemphasized.

Calcium is the most abundant element in the body. It’s the major component of important structures in the body. Calcium constitutes a large percentage of bone composition, calcium in the form of hydroxyapatite makes up about 70% of the bone mass, while about 20% of the calcium in the body can be found in the teeth. In all, about 90% of the calcium component is found in the teeth and the bony framework of the body.

Other calcium in the body play critical role in various physiological processes and are not found in structural forms. More would be written on the benefits and role of calcium in the later part of this article.

Since the deficiency of calcium has been associated with various diseases, both in young children and in older people, especially women above the menopausal age. It’s important for those with this deficiency to find a way of making up for the lacked calcium, and this is where calcium supplements comes into play.

Under normal circumstances, the calcium component of the food we eat on daily basis contains enough amount of calcium to keep our body in good condition. The recommended daily allowance of calcium intake for adult is between 1000-1300 mg/day, while that of children is between 200-700mg per day, depending on their age.

This quantity of calcium should normally be present in the regular food we take on daily basis, however research shows that about one-third of Americans are not getting enough calcium in their diet. This is probably due to the fact that, some people are selectively vegans, some are allergic to diary food which is one of the common source of calcium in the diet, while some are suffering from lactose intolerance.

What this implies is that, for every three hundred (300) Americans you select at random, about one hundred (100) of them are suffering from the deficiency of calcium. This set of people could benefit greatly from the use of calcium supplements.

Although, a section of this article would examine in details, what the deficiency of calcium is, but here are few diseases associated with calcium deficiency in the body system; osteoporosis, rickets, poor blood clotting, etc.

On the other hand, it should be noted that everything with a profound merit usually has its own side effect. This is to point out that although calcium is good for the body and its deficiency might pose potential risk to the overall well-being, excess consumption of calcium has its own demerit as well.

Consuming too much of calcium makes it difficult for the body to metabolize it effectively. Since the body needs Vitamin D to conveniently metabolize calcium, it’s important to ensure that the intake of calcium supplements is balanced with that of Vitamin D.

Benefits of calcium supplements

Are calcium supplements effective? Do calcium supplements work?

In the initial part of this post, I mentioned the fact that, for those that are not vegan, and those not allergic to milk, soy milk and other common source of calcium in nutrition, then they have no need for taking calcium supplements.

But if the doctor recommends calcium supplements, or you’re allergic to most food that provides calcium in the nutrition, then calcium supplements would be highly beneficial for you. Vegans would also benefit from the usage of calcium supplements because a larger percentage of the food consumed by vegans lack calcium.

Since the function of calcium supplements is to serve as replacement or therapy for the deficiency of calcium in the body. Then the benefits of calcium supplements would equal the benefit of calcium in the body system.

Bone Health:

Osteoporosis is a very common disease among women of menopausal age. The cause of this disease is often attributed to the depletion in the calcium component of the bone. What this implies is that, the usage of calcium supplement would reduce the risk of osteoporosis and other disorder related to calcium deficiency in the body.

Neurotransmitter Release:

The brain controls various system of the body by the release of substance called neurotransmitter. These neurotransmitters are very crucial in the mediation of the action of the brain on local organ.

Calcium is important in the release of these neurotransmitters in local organs.

Deficiency of calcium has been associated with disorder of muscle contraction and disorder. According to this research, calcium has also been implicated in the transmission of information between neurons across the synaptic gap.

Enzyme and Hormone Function:

Calcium ion, just like every other nutritional metals, play an important role in the production of various enzymes and hormones for the body usage.

When the level of calcium in the blood stream is low, the body would eventually reach out to the bones to withdraw some calcium for the formation of these hormones and enzymes.

Continued withdrawal of calcium from the bone would affect the bone health and result into easy fracture of bone under little stress.

Taking calcium supplements in cases of calcium deficiency would prevent the occurrence of such incidence.

Healthy Teeth:

For kids and teens, the amount of calcium in the body determines how strong their teeth would be. Because calcium plays a vital role in ensuring strong gum that hold the teeth in place throughout life.

When teethes are firmly held by the gum, then bacterial would not be able to invest the gum and as a result the teeth would remain sturdy throughout life.

The intake of calcium at the appropriate dosage is beneficial in this regards, especially for kids and teen, in such a way, they would grow a naturally strong teeth and gum.

Blood Pressure Control:

Various studies have been conducted to examine the effect of calcium on the human blood pressure.

While the result of those research are not definitive enough to conclude that calcium alone can help control blood pressure, the research shows that calcium alongside fruits and vegetables are capable of regulating the blood pressure in human beings.

Weight Management:

This study, and this study shows that increased calcium intake can help reduce weight gain and also lower body weight over time.

Prevention Of Colon Cancer:

Calcium has been show to play an important role in the reduction of the occurrence of colon cancer. Calcium supplements and calcium from other dietary source generally plays a protective role in the occurrence of colon cancer.

Cardiovascular Disease:

According to research by the institute of medicine, it’s been shown that calcium plays a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, by getting rid of cholesterol in the body system, through excretion of lipids and reduced absorption of lipids. (It should be noted that taking calcium without Vitamin D might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease)

Having examine some of the benefits of calcium supplements, then it’s appropriate to look into various types of calcium supplements that are available in the market, and which one if appropriate for use.

Types of calcium supplements

The major difference between the calcium supplements available in the market is the amount of elemental calcium present in the supplements. What this means is that, calcium supplements is usually not just made up of calcium, but rather, it’s made up of calcium alongside other compounds.

The common types of calcium supplements are:

Calcium Carbonate:

This calcium supplement has the highest amount of elemental calcium of all the calcium supplements. About 40% elemental calcium, however, it’s been shown to have low bioavailability, such that the amount of calcium that is eventually absorbed by the body from calcium carbonate in-take is considerably low. It is however, the most common type of calcium supplement in market, and it’s the cheapest of all the calcium supplements.

Calcium Citrate:

The elemental calcium present in calcium citrate is about 20%, which is significantly low when compared to calcium carbonate. However, the bioavailability of calcium citrate is higher than that of calcium carbonate because of its acidic nature, making it easier to absorb along the gastrointestinal tract.

Calcium Gluconate:

This type of calcium supplement is known to have low level of elemental calcium in it, about 9%. What this means is that, you would have to get a large dose of calcium gluconate before getting enough of the calcium your body requires.

Calcium Lactate:

The bioavailability of this type of calcium supplement is not particularly high. The elemental calcium present in calcium lactate is about 13%. It’s not a very common type of calcium supplement.

There are also liquid calcium supplements that perform the same function like the tablet form with the difference being their solubility in water. Calcium Citrate Malate is an example of water soluble calcium. It’s made up of calcium found in citric acid and malic acid. Because of its solubility in water, the bioavailability is considerably high.

Depending on the manufacturer, there are other forms of calcium combined with some other important element. Example of which are; calcium and magnesium supplement combined in a single tablet. There are also calcium and vitamin D supplements tablet.

Calcium supplements for kids:

If your child is not getting enough calcium, then it’s important to find a way of supplementing their calcium intake.

Some kids might choose not to take foods that contain calcium, which would result into its deficiency in their body since they are not getting enough calcium from the food they are eating.

Some are allergic to diary products why some due to lactose intolerance would generally avoid milk and other natural source dietary calcium. In cases like this; it’s important to get them calcium supplements, or better consult with your doctor and talk with him or her about possible diet adjustment that would favor your kids calcium intake.

But remember, that calcium is very essential for kids and teens so as to get a strong bone and good strong teeth.

Taking Calcium Supplements:

How much calcium should I take?

Even though calcium is considered less toxic as compared to other metals, it’s still very important to take the right amount of calcium in the appropriate manner in other to maintain a proper balance in the body’s calcium level.

There are no special guides on how to take calcium supplements, other than following the right calcium supplements dosage (Check Below) and taking the supplement alongside vitamin D. Because Vitamin D is responsible for the absorption of calcium into the blood stream, it’s important to strike a balance in the consumption of vitamin D and calcium supplements.

The best way to take calcium supplements is to do so in the morning after meal and spread out the dosage across the rest of the day. What this means is that, if you are to take 1000mg of calcium as an adult daily, you can split the intake into two; which is about 500mg in the morning and the remaining 500mg is the evening. The reason for this is to ensure maximum absorbability of the calcium supplements.

There are varieties of calcium component, ranging from liquid, to powder, tablet and chewable calcium supplements; your choice depends mainly on your discretion. If you generally don’t like swallowing tablets, you might opt for the chewable form of calcium supplement.

Recommended Daily Allowance Of Calcium:

The data below represents the recommended daily value of calcium intake.






0–6 months*

200 mg

200 mg



7–12 months*

260 mg

260 mg



1–3 years

700 mg

700 mg



4–8 years

1,000 mg

1,000 mg



 9–13 years

1,300 mg

1,300 mg



14–18 years

1,300 mg

1,300 mg

1,300 mg

1,300 mg

19–50 years

1,000 mg

1,000 mg

1,000 mg

1,000 mg

51–70 years

1,000 mg

1,200 mg



71+ years

1,200 mg

1,200 mg




Check here for complete details on adequate intake on NIH website.


In taking calcium supplements, let’s say you’re 20 years old, and you are taking calcium carbonate supplement which has 40% elemental calcium. If you take 1000mg of calcium carbonate, it means you’re getting only 400mg of calcium (because it has 40% elemental calcium) from the dosage, which means you would have to take about 2000mg of calcium carbonate to get the rough estimate of the RDA.

NB: The above paragraph is just a theoretical explanation of the difference between various types of calcium supplements and it’s proposed dosage. PLEASE CONSULT A PROFESSIONAL BEFORE USAGE.

Calcium supplements side effects

Right from the beginning of this article, I have been reiterating that, it’s best if you can source the calcium needed by your body from the food you take rather than taking supplements. But if for one reason or the other, there is a need to supplement your diet intake, then it’s important that you do so within the normal limit and not consume too much of calcium supplements.

Hypercalcemia is the term giving to excessive presence of calcium in the blood stream. This condition has been associated with various cardiovascular diseases, as it has been show to distort the homeostatic control of blood calcium level.

In extremely rare condition, hypercalcemia might also result into calcification of soft tissue. Calcification is the conversion of soft tissue to hard tissue through the addition of calcium.

High intake of calcium both in natural food and in supplements can cause constipation, and disrupt the absorption of other important minerals in the body. Some studies have also linked high intake of calcium supplements with kidney stone disease.

Best Calcium Supplement

The best calcium supplement is the variety with high elemental calcium and high bioavailability.

Absolute Truth About Cognitive Enhancers: The Good, Bad and Ugly.

Have you seen the movie titled “Limitless”? It’s a movie about the use of cognitive enhancers and how they can make people smarter and do more with their brain within the shortest time frame. Just like any other movie, the main purpose is to entertain viewers and not really educate them on the use of cognitive enhancers.

Nevertheless, movies like this have sparked various discussions about the possibility of such drugs in real life, what if everybody can be as smart as the lead character in that movie? What if we can all think in various perspectives simultaneously, what if there is a drug that can get us to be more alert, focused and calm? What is there is a drug that can really make us super smart?

… Well, there is! In fact, there are several drugs in the market, created specifically for such purpose; they are called cognitive enhancers, or nootropics. Although the two terms are used interchangeably, they have slightly different meaning, but for the sake of clarity, I would use the term “cognitive enhancers” all through this article.

Before we delve into what specific drug does and how you can take advantage of them to become smarter, let us look into what cognitive enhancement is all about.

What Is Cognitive Enhancement?

As the most advanced vertebrate on planet earth, humans are known to be smarter and faster. The reason for this is attributed to evolution of the brain and other anatomical structures of the body. The basic explanation to human smartness lies in our cognition; which is the way we see, understand and react to our environment.

There are about seven (7) cognitive abilities; attention, memory, motor skills, language, visual and spatial processing, perception and executive function.

Let’s take a look at few examples of what cognitive ability means before we move on to what cognitive enhancement is all about….

The first one is an example of cognitive ability in the motor skills category:

Remember when you were learning how to drive? When you would put all your attention on the wheels, the rate at which you’re pumping the gas, the gear, the steering, the side mirrors and every other necessary things. As time goes on, you begin to get better at driving, and you can do some other stuffs while driving (for instance answering a phone call), over time, you discover that, you just drive without even thinking about it. At that particular point in time, your brain is performing a cognitive function based on previous knowledge and experience.

Another typical example is cognitive ability in the language category:

When you’re learning a new language, or let’s say when you’re learning a computer program. In the inception, all your focus would be on the syntax, the models and other necessary stuffs. But as you gain proficiency, you discover that you can speak the language with less effort as compared to when you started learning.

Your brain can look at a very minute detail, make connection with several other events that is slightly related to the details, and invariably make sense of it. That is the peak of cognitive functioning.

Cognitive enhancement on the other hand, is the things you can do to improve these cognitive abilities.

Since they are not static throughout life, they tend to be at their peak during adulthood and begin to depreciate with further age advancement; they can as well be improved with the use of cognitive enhancers and a well-tailored lifestyle.

Cognitive enhancement is the conscious effort we make to improve our attention span, our memory and recall ability, our perception skills, our information processing skills as well as our executive function ability, which involves, decision-making, theory of mind, flexibility and others.

Improving these skills through cognitive enhancement would definitely increase our productivity. This would lead to the next section of the article, where the word “cognitive enhancers” is explained in the simplest of term.

What are Cognitive Enhancers?

In broad term, cognitive enhancers (can also be referred to as nootropics) are drugs that improve any of the cognitive abilities listed earlier in this article.

Although, the above definition is very limited, because there are several other ways of improving cognitive abilities without the use of drugs or supplements (much of which will be discussed in the later part of the post). In this post, the main focus is on cognitive enhancers that are taken as drugs or supplement.

This drug comes in different varieties and a larger percentage of them has been shown to play significant role in improving some or all of the listed cognitive skills. Before the recent development of new cognitive enhancers, caffeine is the most popular stimulant used for cognitive enhancement, it is gradually being replaced by more potent nootropics.

In the past, the use of cognitive enhancers is common among those with medical condition such as ADHD and ADD, however the use of new modern, over the counter cognitive enhancers is now prevalent, even in healthy individual.

The reason for this is not far-fetched. We generally want to be more focused, we want to increase our productivity and gain more from the limited time we have.

How Do Cognitive Enhancer Work?

  • Increasing Blood Supply To Brain: 
  • The brain consumes about 20% of the total body energy, meaning it consumes more energy than other organs of the body. The higher the amount of energy reaching the brain, the faster it works.

    You can liken this to the regular fuel consumption in a car, when you want to increase the speed at which you’re moving, you would have to shift to a higher gear, then pump more gas using the throttle.

    Now, let’s imagine you have a full gas tank, and that your gear and other stuffs are functioning very well. However, the fuel pump is not doing well, or the fuel pipe from the tank to the engine is very narrow, you would agree with me that the speed of your car would not be high. No matter how hard you press the pump, the car won’t run fast, because the fuel is not just getting to the engine!

    This is exactly what happens when the supply of blood to the brain is limited by one or more factor. Because the blood carries nutrient and oxygen throughout the body system, any area of the body that does not get enough blood will suffer malnutrition.

    One of the ways in which cognitive enhancer works is by increasing the blood supply to the brain, and by so doing, the amount of energy and nutrient in the brain is high, and the neurons functions is at its peak.

  • Getting Rid Of Free Radicals:
  • Some cognitive enhancer works by getting rid of free radicals and as such keeping the brain cells (neurons) healthy.

    Free radicals are notorious waste products of the oxygen we breathe into our body. When air (which contains oxygen and other atmospheric element) is inhaled, the oxygen is metabolized and other waste product is exhaled. However, some ions such as O- and H+ remains in the body system. These ions are capable of combining with nitrogen or even other ions to form what is known as reactive species.

    These reactive species have damaging effect on the cell structure. When there are numerous free radicals in the brain cell, it begins to affect their cell structure and consequently their functionality. Taking note that brain cells do not undergo mitosis (breakdown and renewal) like other cells of the body. What this means is that, any damage to the brain cell is long lasting.

    Although the body has it’s own antioxidant system that automatically get rid of all the reactive species, in most cases, the antioxidant can only do so much, and further help is needed by the supplementing the available antioxidant in other to avoid stressing out the brain cell.

    Some cognitive enhancers function as free radicals, they basically work as scavengers of free radicals. They move around in the brain cell to mop out free radicals. Other cognitive enhancers in this category work by stimulating the production of the body antioxidant enzymes, that way, the brain has enough antioxidative enzymes to get rid of the free radicals.

    Caffeine is a good example of cognitive enhancers that falls into this category. They are known as antioxidative agent or antioxidant because they are capable of mopping up free radicals and as well stimulating the production of more antioxidant enzymes.

    Some other naturally occurring nootropics contains amino acid that act as precursor for several neurotransmitters in the brain. Neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that transmits messages from one neuron to the other. For effective brain functioning, there must be adequate supply of neurotransmitters within the brain cells.

    Another means by which cognitive enhancers increase the functionality of the brain is by balancing the neurotransmitters in the brain and getting rid of stress hormones in the brain… Stress hormone such as cortisol amidst others.

Who Should Use Cognitive Enhancers?

Cognitive enhancers is not just for unhealthy people with brain medical condition. Traditionally, most cognitive enhancing drugs were developed to cater for the needs of those suffering from mental disorder such as ADD, ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease, et.c.

But the use of cognitive enhancer has grown beyond that. Healthy people now take cognitive enhancer for various reasons. As a matter of fact, a larger percentage of silicon valley executive take one form of cognitive enhancing drug or the other.

Checking through the benefits of cognitive enhancers, you would agree with me that virtually everybody could benefit from its usage. But for the sake of clarity and specificity, let’s take a look at the category of people that would benefit immensely from using cognitive enhancing drugs.


This is arguably the largest percentage of those taking cognitive enhancers. In a recent study in Germany, it was shown that about 30% of college student in Germany take one form of cognitive enhancing drug or the other. I believe if the same study is conducted in US and other European country, the result would not be contrary.

Students can benefit greatly from the use of cognitive enhancers, especially when it comes to staying focused and alert. The use of cognitive enhancers can improve reasoning ability. In fact, in some cases, cognitive enhancers are also called “smart drugs” or “smart pill”, this terms is usually used amidst students.


One of the benefits of cognitive enhancer is to enhance the executive function of the brain, which includes decision-making, inferential thinking and theory of mind. In simplest term, what this means is that, people with enhanced executive functioning of the brain can easily make decision based on provided information.

They don’t just think from a single perspective, they tend to see issues from various perspective, weigh-in on the supposed end result of each perspective and eventually make their decision from that. You would agree with me that such ability or skill is needed for company executives and entrepreneurs.


The most important skills needed in physical sport is the ability to manipulate your body at will. This all depends on the motor skills coordination. Since cognitive enhancers are known to enhance motor skills, and it’s not against the rule of competition to take them, then athletes can enjoy the benefit of these smart pills.

ADD/ADHD Patients:

People with attention disorder can greatly benefit from the use of cognitive enhancers. Most of the cognitive enhancing drugs in the market are known to increase the ability to focus on a particular thing for a longer period of time. Since ADD/ADHD patients usually have problem with focusing and paying attention, then cognitive enhancer is considered a good fit for such medical condition.

For those suffering from attention disorder, it is advised that you consult your doctor before taking any medication. He/she is in best position to prescribe the right medication to address your current state of health.

Seniors/Aged People:

As we grow old, we tend to lose certain skills and ability. It’s a normal physiological effect associated with ageing. To keep your brain cell alive and at uttermost functionality, aged people can benefit from the use of cognitive enhancers.

Frankly, anybody can benefit from the use of cognitive enhancing drug. Since it as potent effect on the functioning of the brain, and using them won’t make you dull or less smart, then why not take them if there is a need to.

Various Methods Of Achieving Cognitive Enhancement?

Earlier in this article, I noted that there are several means by which the cognitive functions of the brain can be enhanced. This section of the article would explore various methods by which cognitive enhancement can be achieved, towards the end, I would specifically state the best method of cognitive enhancement.

  • Brain Training
  • Exercise
  • Meditation
  • supplements
  • Enhancers

Before the advent of smart pills, this is probably the most common means of enhancing the cognitive functions of the brain. Brain training involves taking up mentally strengthening activities such as planning Sudoku, chess and other type of games. Although this method usually have little impact on the brain cognitive functioning, but it’s considered more effective in younger children, once the game or activity is mastered, then such brain training serves no purpose than entertainment.

Best Method Of Cognitive Enhancement?

Having listed various methods of cognitive enhancement, it’s only fair to be specific on which of them is the best method for improving the brain’s cognitive functions.

Looking at the methods listed above, you would agree with me that, each of them has a specific focus, take for instance, brain training is only effecting in improving the theory of mind, meditation is only effective for focusing, etc…

The only exception to this is exercise and cognitive enhancers. While exercise is a very good way to improve cognitive functioning of the brain, it should be noted that it is not as effective as the use of cognitive enhancers.

In a nutshell, the use of cognitive enhancers is the best method of improving cognitive functioning of the brain. Their effect is known to last longer than that of exercise, they’re not stressful to use and not time consuming as the case is with exercises.

List of cognitive enhancers

Although there are handful of cognitive enhancers in the market, only a fraction of them are known to be as effective as advertised. The reason being that, the market is not regulated, and there are no specified standard for the production of cognitive enhancers (I hope this changes in the nearest future).

This list consist of few specific product based on research conducted on amazon. It is not in any way the “holy grail” of cognitive enhancers. But I have done my possible best to careful select products with good reviews based on users comment, pricing and company’s reputation.

    • Citicoline Supplements
    • NeuroEnhance Natural Brain Function Booster Supplement for Memory, Focus, Mental Clarity & Cognitive Function Enhanced Ginkgo Biloba
    • Himazol Natural Anxiety and Stress Supplement Promotes Mental Well-Being And Cognitive Support.
    • Alpha GPC Choline Supplement.
    • Memory & Thought Support - Cognitive Nutrition & Mental Performance Enhancer - w/ Ginkgo Biloba, Asian Ginseng, Gotu Kola, Vitamins B12 & E
    • Nature's Wellness Memory Mind Matrix Dietary Supplement
    • Nootropics Brain Function & Memory Booster.
    • Ciltep Nootropic Stack
    • Neuro-Peak
    • Neurolon

Any Adverse Effect?

Just like any other drugs or medication, too much of it might result into unwanted deleterious effect. So far, there is no proper documentation on the adverse effect of the known cognitive enhancers. This is not to show that they won’t have an adverse effect.

Probably, in the long run when enough data has been accumulated, there would be a solid evidence to analyze the side effects of taking cognitive enhances. But as at the time of writing this article, there is a proper documentation of their side effects.

Another thing to take note is body tolerance. The more you get hung up on certain medication, the more your body builds tolerance against its effect. It is advisable to watch out for this when taking supplement based cognitive enhancers.

Best Cognitive Enhancers

I know this is the part most readers are interested in. Having considered everything that is to be known about cognitive enhancers, it’s only fair to give specific direction about which of the product is the best in market.

The selection of this product is based on their chemical constituents, users reviews, pricing, and overall effect. We are interested in supplements that is capable of improving all brain cognitive skills rather than ones with specific interest.

So here is our pick for the top 5 cognitive enhancement. Taking note that the list is not in any specific order.

#1. Neurolon - This supplement is known to improve mental sharpness, clarity, focus and memory.

#2. Neuro-Peak – It’s a natural based brain supplement, appraised for it’s potency as far as mental sharpness is concerned.

#3. Neuro-Enhance – It’s a natural herbal based supplement that aids recall, memory, concentration and focus.

#4. Ciltep Nootropic Stack – It’s potent for improving focus, memory and motivation.

#5. Vimerson Brain Health Supplement – Completely natural contents, and has great reviews for improving memory, focus and alertness.